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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    FICHA TEÓRICO-PRÁCTICA #8:

    TIEMPOS VERBALES

    En un curso de lectura comprensiva, la idea de presentar la formación de los tiempos verbales es sólo para reconocimiento

    de los mismos en los textos.

    El siguiente cuadro muestra, de manera muy sintética y a través de ejemplos, cómo se forman los tiempos verbales

    llamados simple  en inglés, en sus formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa.

    SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE FUTURE (will)

     I (You, We, They) need some moretests.(Yo) necesito algunos tests más.

    She (He, It) works perfectly in thisenvironment.

    (Ella) trabaja perfectamente en esteambiente.

    How do you (I, we, they) prepare thesamples?¿Cómo preparás (vos) las muestras?DO+I, WE, THEY+INFINITIVO

    What does she (he, it) measure?¿Qué mide (ella)?DOES+SHE, HE, IT+INFINITIVO (NO

     “S”)

    They do not (don´t) understand thereason.

    (Ellos) no comprenden la razón.

    DO + NOT + INFINITIVO

    He does not (doesn´t) consider thatvariable at all.(Él) no considera para nada esa variable.DOES + NOT + INFINITIVO (NO “s”)

    I worked all night yesterday.(Yo) trabajé toda la noche ayer.

     VERBOS REGULARES (desinencia –ed)

    They took it to the laboratory.(Ellos) lo llevaron al laboratorio.

     VERBOS IRREGULARES (2º columna,ver siguiente tema de este manual)

    What did you bring to the field last week?

    ¿Qué trajiste al campo (vos) la semanapasada?

    DID+SUJETO+INFINITIVO

    We did not (didn’t) believe it.(Nosotros) no lo creímos.DID+ NOT+VERBO INFINITIVO

    She will decide soon.(Ella) decidirá pronto.SUJETO+WILL+INFINITIVO

    What will you write in the abstract?¿Qué escribirás (vos) en el abstract ?

    WILL+SUJETO+ INFINITIVOThey will not (won’t) come untiltomorrow.(Ellos) no vendrán hasta mañana.SUJETO+WILL+NOT+INFINITIVO

    SIMPLE CONDITIONAL (WOULD)

    She would come if she could.(Ella) vendría si pudiera.SUJETO+WOULD+VERBO INF.

    What would you do if you were veryrich?¿Qué harías si tuvieras mucho dinero?WOULD+SUJETO+VERBO INF.

    They would not live here if it werenot for you.(Ellos) no vivirían aquí si no fuera porvos.SUJ.+WOULD+NOT+VERBO INF.

    1. Encerrá con los verbos en tiempos simple   de los siguientes enunciados –excepto to be -

    2. Expresálos en español. 

    Práctica Opcional:

    3. Transformálos al negativo y al interrogativo, para lo cual identificá correctamente el actor del

    enunciado, a quién descubrirás preguntando ¿quién? o ¿qué? al verbo.

    4. Recordá consultar la lista de verbos irregulares para familiarizarte con los infinitivos.

    Ej: Zoby and Holmes (1983) reported that with extreme differences in animal size (mature cows vs stockers vs

    calves), bite size values calculated indirectly from estimated herbage intake and total daily bites were different.

      Zoby y Holmes informaron que, con extremas diferencias en tamaño del animal, (vacas maduras vs vacas enengorde vs terneros) los valores del tamaño del mordisco, calculados indirectamente a partir de la ingesta dehierba y los mordiscos diarios, eran diferentes.

      Zoby and Holmes did not report that ….  Did Zoby and Holmes report that …?

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    Tiempos Verbales

    1. Vaccines do not always prevent infection. 

    2. Dry-cow therapy will cure some infections existing at the time of drying off. 

    3. A neoplasm of intermediate malignancy does not metastasize. 

    4. Estrogen, by itself, does not contribute to the development of pyometra. 

    5. Anemia develops when the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream is reduced. 

    6. Equine Infectious Anemia tends to become an inapparent infection but occasionally results in death. 

    7. Prevention of new cases of mastitis depends on reducing exposure of uninfected cows to infected cows duringmilking. 

    8. Canine demodicosis is a common disease in dogs and occurs when large numbers of Demodeex canis mites inhabithair follicles, sebaceous glands.

    9. Severe anemia results ina asignificantly reduced ability of the blood to deliver oxygen throughout the body and, mostimportantly, to vital organs such as the brain. 

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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    El siguiente cuadro muestra, por su parte, de manera muy sintética y a través de ejemplos también, cómo se forman los

    tiempos verbales llamados progressive en inglés, en sus formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa.

    PRESENT PROGRESSIVE PAST PROGRESSIVE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE

     I am analyzing the data now.(Yo) estoy analizando los datosahora.She (He, It) is testing theequipment right now.(Ella) está probando el equipo eneste momento.We (They, You) are controlling theplague.(Nosotros) estamos controlando laplaga.

    SUJETO+AM, IS, ARE+ING

    What is he (she, it) preparing?¿Qué está preparando (él)What are you (we, they) doingthere?¿Qué estás haciendo (vos) ahí?What am I doing?¿Qué estoy haciendo (yo)?

     AM, IS, ARE+SUBJECT+ING?

    I am not (‘m not) saying that.(Yo) no estoy diciendo eso.He is not (isn’t) looking at thatsample.(Él) no está mirando esa muestra.They are not (aren’t) recording it.

    (Ellos) no están registrándolo.SUJETO+ AM, IS,

     ARE+NOT+ING

    She (He, It) was working when theyarrived.(Ella) estaba trabajando cuando (ellos)llegaron.

    I, HE, SHE, IT+WAS+ ING

     You, (We, They) were talking when theclass started.(Vos) estabas conversando cuando la clasecomenzó.

     YOU, WE, THEY+WERE+VERBO+ -ING 

    He was not (wasn’t) reading when thephone rang.(Él) no estaba leyendo cuando el teléfonosonó.I, HE, SHE, IT+WAS+NOT+ING

    They were not (weren’t) watching thestudents when the accident happened.(Ellos) no estaban observando a losestudiantes cuando ocurrió el accidente.

     YOU, WE, THEY+WERE+NOT+ ING

    Why was she analyzing the samples,instead of you, when I arrived?¿Por qué estaba ella analizando las muestras,y no vos, cuando (yo) llegué?WAS+I, HE, SHE, IT+ING?

    What were you doing when they arrived?¿Qué estabas haciendo cuando (ellos)llegaron?WERE+ YOU, WE THEY+ ING?

    I will be travelling by the time theyarrive.

    SUJETO+ WILL BE+ ING

    Will you be waiting for us?

    WILL+SUJETO+BE+ ING?

    They will not (won’t) be listening toyou by the time you finish the class.

    SUJETO+WILL+NOT+BE+ ING

    CONDITIONAL PROGRESSIVE

    She would be studying here if shecould.SUJETO+WOULD BE+ING

    What would you be doing if youwere in the Caribbean now?WOULD+SUJETO+BE+ING

    He would not (wouldn’t) becomplaining if he knew the reason.SUJ.+WOULD NOT BE+ING

    1. Encerrá con las frases verbales de los siguientes enunciados en tiempos progressive o continuos .

    2. Expresálos en español. 

    Práctica Opcional:

    3. Transformálos al negativo y al interrogativo, para lo cual identificá correctamente el actor del

    enunciado.

    4. Escribí el infinitivo del verbo principal. Recordá consultar la lista de verbos irregulares parafamiliarizarte con los infinitivos.

    1. The cow is calving in the pen right now. 

    2. They are measuring the feed intake. 

    3. The Vet was isolating the piglets when the farmer arrived. 

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    4. The husbandmen were weighing the steers when the bull attacked them.

     

    5. The lab technician will be examining the fecal samples tomorrow morning in the university lab. 

    6. The CBC (complete blood cell count) is the most common and critical test: it offers more detailed informationregarding the anemia, such as whether the body is losing vs. destroying red blood cells and if it’s producing newred blood cells to replace them. 

    El siguiente y último cuadro muestra, de manera muy sintética y a través de ejemplos, al igual que los anteriores, cómo se

    forman los tiempos verbales llamados perfect en inglés, en sus formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa.

    PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT

     I (You, We They) have already finished.(Yo) ya terminé.

    He (She, It) has already started.(Él) ya comenzó.

     VERBOS REGULARES:SUJETO+HAVE/HAS+ED

    I (You, We, They) have taken a decision.He tomado / Tomé una decisión.

    She (He, It) has brought this new idea forus to analyze.(Ella) ha traído / trajo esta nueva idea paraque nosotros la analicemos.

     VERBOS IRREGULARES:SUJETO+HAVE/HAS+P ARTICIPIO: -ED

    O 3º COLUMNA)

    She has not (hasn’t) finished yet.(Ella) no

    They have not (haven’t) met.

    SUJETO+HAVE/HAS+NOT+PARTICIPIO

    What have you used here? Where hasshe failed?

    HAVE/ HAS+SUJETO+PARTICIPIO 

    They had collected the samples when itstarted to rain.(Ellos) habían juntado las muestras cuandocomenzó a llover.

    She had taken everything out before thebuilding collapsed.(Ella) había sacado todo antes de que eledificio se viniera abajo.

    SUJETO+HAD+PARTICIPIO

    We had not (hadn’t) finished when theyarrived.(Nosotros) no habíamos terminado cuandoellos llegaron.

    SUJETO+HAD+NOT+PARTICIPIO

    How many samples had you taken beforewe changed the method?¿Cuántas muestras habías tomado antes deque (nosotros) cambiáramos el método?

    HAD+SUJETO+PARTICIPIO

    PARTICIPIO: VERBOS REGULARES:DESINENCIA –ED

     VERBOS IRREGULARES:3º COLUMNA

    I will have finished by the time theyarrive.(Yo) habré terminado para cuando (ellos)lleguen.

    SUJETO+WILL HAVE+PARTICIPIO

    They will not (won’t) have finishedthe career by the time they get married.(Ellos) no habrán terminado la carrerapara cuando se casen.

    SUJETO+WILL NOT+PARTICIPIO

    Will you have practiced enough whenthe date of the exam finally arrives?Habrás practicado lo suficiente paracuando llegue la fecha del examen?

    WILL+SUJETO+HAVE+PARTICIPIO

    CONDITIONAL PERFECT

    We would have understood if youhad explained.SUJ.+WOULD HAVE+ PARTICIPIO

    The researcher would not(wouldn’t) have told you that if hehad known the conditions.SUJ.+WOULD NOT HAVE+PART.

    How would you have reacted if youhave been in the same situation?

    WOULD+SUJ.+HAVE+PARTICIPIO

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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    1. Encerrá con las frases verbales de los siguientes enunciados en tiempos perfect .

    2. Expresálas en español. 

    Práctica Opcional:

    3. Transformálas al negativo y al interrogativo, para lo cual identificá correctamente el actor del

    enunciado.

    4. Escribí el infinitivo del verbo principal. Recordá consultar la lista de verbos irregulares parafamiliarizarte con los infinitivos.

    1. No scientist has established the origin of canine parvovirus.

    2. Use of penicillin in mastitis therapy has led to problems of human health. 

    3. Variants of the parvovirus have appeared since the disease was first recognized. 

    4. Before the experiment, these animals had received the regular herd concentrate. 

    5. The infected calves will have died by next month if the treatment does not start immediately.

    6. Advances in analytical techniques have contributed to awareness and concern about toxic residues. 

    7. Consumer confidence in the safety of food has become a priority issue for all the people involved in the food supplychain. 

    8. Dry cow therapy has been part of mastitis control since the 1970s and has been one point of the five point control plan. 

    9. Public concern over the presence of drug residues in edible products of food-producing animals has reachedunprecedented heights. 

    10. Efforts to induce dairy farmers to make greater use of high-quality pastures and reduce their dependency on

    imported concentrates have met with little success. 

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    11. Immunoassay technology has gained rapid acceptance in veterinary and human medicine owing to its high performance capabilities and versatility in applications. 

    12. Certain countries have banned the use of specific compounds, whereas other countries on the base of scientificcriteria, have permitted the continued use of similar products (e.g., growth promoters are banned in the EuropeanCommunity and permitted in the United States). 

    LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES

    ¿Cómo utilizarla?

    La columna INFINITIVE nos da el nombre del verbo, es decir el verbo sin conjugar en ningún tiempo verbal; de esta

    columna formamos el simple present  agregándole “s ” o “es ” para las terceras personas del singular (he, she, it ).

    La columna SIMPLE PAST nos informa acerca de los verbos irregulares en simple past (pretéritos perfecto e indefinido del

    español), y la forma que se presenta es la misma para todos los pronombres. No figuran aquí los verbos regulares, porque

    su simple past  se forma agregando “ed” al infinitivo.

    La columna PAST PARTICIPLE nos informa acerca del pasado participio (terminación –ado -ido del español) de los verbos

    irregulares; una vez más, no figuran aquí los verbos regulares porque su pasado participio se forma agregando “ed” al

    infinitivo.

    Comúnmente se llama “primera columna” a la INFINITIVE, “segunda columna” a la SIMPLE PAST, y “tercera columna” a la

    PAST PARTICIPLE.

    TRADUCCIÓN  INFINITIVE  SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE 

    ser/estar:golpear:

    convertirse, volverse:comenzar:soplar, explotar:romper, estallar:traer:construir:quemar:comprar:atrapar, tomar:elegir, seleccionar:venir, llegar:cortar:hacer, realizar:dibujar, deslizar, atraer:beber:conducir, manejar:comer:caer:sentir:

    be (am, is, are)beat

    becomebeginblowbreakbringbuildburnbuycatchchoosecomecutdodrawdrinkdriveeatfallfeel

    was/werebeat

    becamebeganblewbrokebroughtbuiltburntboughtcaughtchosecamecutdiddrewdrankdroveatefellfelt

    beenbeaten

    becomebegunblownbrokenbroughtbuiltburntboughtcaughtchosencomecutdonedrawndrunkdriveneatenfallenfelt

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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    encontrar, hallar:volar:olvidar:conseguir, comprar, llegar:dar, otorgar:ir, dirijirse:crecer:tener, haber:oir:esconder, ocultar:golpear:sostener, mantener, llevarse a caboherir, lastimar:mantener, guardar, seguir:saber, conocer:poner, colocar, recostar:llevar, conducir, liderar:aprender, enterarse:partir, dejar, abandonar:prestar:

    dejar, permitir:yacer, recostarse:alumbrar, encender:perder, extraviar:hacer, realizar:significar, querer decir:encontrarse con, conocerse:equivocarse, errar:pagar, prestar (atención):poner:leer:llamar, sonar:elevarse, levantarse:correr, administrar:

    decir:ver:vender:enviar:sacudir:brillar:disparar:mostrar:cerrar:hundir:sentarse:dormir:oler:gastar:untar, esparcir:levantar:robar:golpear:nadar:tomar, llevar:enseñar:rasgar, romper:narrar, decir, contar:pensar, opinar:arrojar:entender, comprender:despertar:

    usar (ropa):ganar:escribir: 

    findflyforgetgetgivegogrowhavehearhidehitholdhurtkeepknowlayleadlearnleavelend

    letlielightlosemakemeanmeetmistakepayputreadringriserun

    sayseesellsendshakeshineshootshowshutsinksitsleepsmellspendspreadstandstealstrikeswimtaketeachteartellthinkthrowunderstandwake

    wearwinwrite

    foundflewforgotgotgavewentgrewhadheardhidhitheldhurtkeptknewlaidledlearntleftlent

    letlaylitlostmademeantmetmistookpaidputreadrangroseran

    saidsawsoldsentshookshoneshotshowedshutsanksatsleptsmeltspentspreadstoodstolestrokeswamtooktaughttoretoldthoughtthrewunderstoodwoke

    worewonwrote

    foundflownforgottengottengivengonegrownhadheardhiddenhitheldhurtkeptknownlaidledlearntleftlent

    letlainlitlostmademeantmetmistakenpaidputreadrungrisenrun

    saidseensoldsentshakenshoneshotshownshutsunksitsleptsmeltspentspreadstoodstolenstrickenswumtakentaughttorntoldthoughtthrownunderstoodwaken

    wornwonwritten 

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    Es muy importante que te familiarices con estos verbos, intentá armar una estrategia para, de aquí a fin de año,

    aprenderlos, de este modo recurrirás mucho menos al diccionario cuando aparezcan en los textos.

    Otros tiempos verbales:

      PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:

    SUJETO + TO HAVE (PRESENTE – PASADO – FUTURO) + BEEN + VERBO + -ING

    The cat  has been vomiting  for the last three days.

    Hace tres días que el gato vomita. El gato ha estado vomitando por tres días.

    TO HAVE (PRESENTE – PASADO – FUTURO) + SUJETO + BEEN + VERBO + -ING

    How long have you been studying  this subject?

    ¿Cuánto hace que estás estudiando este tema?

    SUJETO + TO HAVE (PRESENTE – PASADO – FUTURO) + NOT + BEEN + VERBO + -INGI haven’t been following the progress of this project work, to tell you the truth.

     A decir verdad, no he estado siguiendo el progreso de este trabajo de campo.

      BE + GOING TO + VERBO INFINITIVO = futuro para expresar planes e intención 

    They are going to build a new research hall over there.

     Van a construir un nuevo pabellón de investigación allí.

     Are you going to start the test next month?

    ¿ Vas a comenzar la prueba el mes próximo?

    We  are not going to write a new paper on this subject.

    No vamos a escribir un nuevo paper  sobre este tema. 

    Cuadro resumen Tiempos Verbales: 

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    PRÁCTICA:

    TIEMPOS SIMPLE :

    1. Resaltá con un marcador los verbos o frases verbales en tiempos simple   de los siguientes enunciados –

    excepto to be-

    2. Expresálos en español. 

    3. Leé el enunciado completo para poder interpretarlo, en español, en forma clara y precisa.

    Ejemplo: Zoby and Holmes (1983) reported that, with extreme differences in animal size, bite size values, calculated

    indirectly from estimated herbage intake and total daily bites, were different.

      Zoby y Holmes informaron que, con extremas diferencias en tamaño del animal, los valores del tamaño delmordisco, calculados indirectamente a partir de la ingesta de hierba y los mordiscos diarios, eran diferentes.

    1. This manuscript will review cow-calf production systems.

    2. We shall discuss in detail the important points to look for in the physical traits of bull classes. 

    3. Each pasture received a winter application of pre emergent herbicide for control of annual weeds and grasses.

    4. One of the most common traumatic spinal cord injuries in dogs occurs because of rupture of one or more of theinvertebral discs.

    5. With a high energy density, this food for cats and dogs contains concentrated essential nutrients and highly digestibleingredients.

    6.  A clean environment for dry cows will reduce new infections during the dry period, especially the last 2 wk beforecalving.

    7. Some laws in this country would eliminate low-level feeding of antibiotics and prohibit the therapeutic use of someantibiotics in animals.

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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    8. The skeletal strucure of a horse has evolved quite differently from that of the dog, particularly in the limbs, to supportits massive weight.

    9. Adequate nutrition of the female during gestation will normalize the behavioral developmetn and pituitary function ofthe neonate

    10. A bitch with five puppies averaging 230 gr. will secrete about 150 ml. of milk per day with a caloric value of 1.2 to 1.3calories per ml.

    Texto 1:

    Staphylococcus aureus causes both acute and chronic mastitis that responds poorly to treatment. It is easily

    transmitted at milking time and colonizes the teat canal but, contrary to prior opinion, does not colonize the skin. 

    1. Observá el Texto 1 e identificá todos los verbos y frases verbales en simple present . Encerrálos con un

    círculo en el texto mismo.

    2. Leé el texto 1 y pensá en un título para este breve texto que responda a la pregunta ¿de qué trata?

    TÍTULO

    TEXTO 1:

    Texto 2:

    This program is the national udder health program for the Australian dairy industry. More than $130 million is lost to

     Australian dairy farmers each year through poor udder health. Mastitis is the major cause of this loss. Mastitis

    reduces milk yield and leads to poor quality milk. Together, these factors erode the milk income received by farmers.

    In addition, antibiotic therapy used to overcome udder disease adds to dairy farmers’ costs and require strict

    monitoring to prevent residue entering the milk. This program plan consists of a set of recommendations to assist

    dairy farmers with profitable control of mastitis.

    Fuente: Brightling, P., Mein, G., Malmo, J., Ryan, D., Countdown Down Under: Farm Guidelines for Mastitis Control (1998)

    1. Leé la fuente del texto y expresá en español el tema general a manera de título alternativo, es decir,

    respondé a la pregunta ¿de qué trata el texto?

    TÍTULO OTEMA

    GENERAL:

    2. El texto plantea un problema específico en un lugar específico que involucra a un sector de la sociedad

    específico, a la vez que plantea una solución específica. ¿Cuál es el problema? ¿Dónde? ¿Cuál es el sector

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    involucrado? ¿Cuál es la solución al problema? Completá el cuadro a continuación respondiendo a estas

    preguntas.

    PROBLEMA

    LUGAR

    SECTOR DELA

    SOCIEDAD

    SOLUCIÓN

    Observá el texto 3 debajo y determiná, en español:

    a. a qué género pertenece:

    b. a qué entidad, institución, etc.

    se refiere (respondé en inglés y

    español):

    c. qué función tiene la entidad,

    institución, etc:

    d. de dónde es la institución,

    entidad, etc. (país de origen):

    e. a qué tipo de lectores está

    dirigido el texto:

    f. qué función tiene el texto en sí:

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    Texto 3:

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    Observá el Texto 4 debajo:

    1. Scanning: Encerrá con círculo todos los verbos del texto en simple present excepto to be . Transcribílos

    en el cuadro siguiente, junto a su sujeto, o actor del enunciado, y expresá en español la frase formada.

    Ejemplo: two ovaries produce: dos ovarios producen

    1. 8.

    2. 9.

    3. 10.

    4. 11.

    5. 12.

    6. 13.

    7. 14.

    2. Scanning: ¿Qué información proporciona el texto sobre cada uno de los siguientes términos? Respondé

    en inglés.

    Ejemplo: ovaries: produce the egg or ova

    1. estrogen:

    2. follicle:  

    3. funnel of the oviduct:  

    4. embryo:  

    5. secretions from the uterus:  

    6. cervix:  

    7. vagina:  

    8. vulva:  

    3. Scanning: Traducí las siguientes preposiciones según el co texto. Ejemplo: in (línea 2): en

    1. on  (línea 2):  6. from  (línea 6): 

    2. at (línea 3):  7. until  (línea 6): 

    3. after  (línea 4):  8. about (línea 8): 

    4. of (línea 4):  9. with  (línea 8): 

    5. to  (línea 5):

    (línea 11):

    10. during  (línea 9): 

    4. Scanning: Indicá a qué frase o palabra del texto hacen referencia las siguientes palabras o frases,también extraídas del texto. Ejemplo: which  (línea 2): se refiere a two ovaries  (dos ovarios)

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    1. one on the left  (línea 2):

    2. a blister like structure  (línea 3):

    3. it (línea 5):

    4. here  (línea 5):5. which (línea 5):

    5. Skimming: Respondé con una simple frase o con una palabra: ¿De qué trata el texto 4?

    El texto 4 trata sobre

    Texto 4:

    1

    5

    10

    Reproductive Organs and Breeding Pattern

    There are two ovaries in the cow: one on the right and one on the left side, which produce the egg or ova and the

    female sex hormone, estrogen. At each estrus, a blister-like structure, called a follicle, enlarges and ruptures

    approximately 14 hours after the end of heat. This ruptured follicle releases the egg and the funnel of the oviduct picks

    it up. It is here that the sperm cell and egg unite to form the embryo which develops into the calf. The embryo enters

    the uterus four days after breeding and secretions from the uterus nourish it until 35 days when the membranes of the

    embryo and uterus unite to complete implantation. There are two oviducts and two uterine horns plus a single cervix

    which is about two or three inches long and one inch in diameter. The cervix is cartilaginous and hard tissue with three

    well developed rings on the inner lining and forms an effective seal during pregnancy. The cervix opens up or dilates

    during heat so sperm can pass to the uterus and an insemination tube can be inserted during and shortly after estrus.

    The vagina forms a passageway from the outside vulva to the cervix where the semen is deposited during natural

    service. The vulva is seen from the outside and increases in vascularity and size during heat. 

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    Texto 5:

    The body is divided by four basic planes. The median plane divides the body into equal right and left halves. Sagittal

     planes are any planes that lie parallel to the median plane. Sagittal planes divide extremities longitudinally into

    medial and lateral aspects. The midsagittal plane and the median plane are synonymous. The dorsal plane divides

    the animal into dorsal and ventral portions. Last, the transverse plane intersects the body perpendicular to the body’s

    axis, dividing the trunk of the animal into cranial and causal regions. An extremity is also considered to have its own

    axis; therefore, a transverse plane of a limb divides the limb into distal (distant) and proximal (close) portions.

    Fuente: Christenson, D. Veterinary Medical Terminology , W. B. Saunders 1997, p. 5-7.

    Leé el texto 5 y, de acuerdo a la información que provee, escribí los nombres que a continuación se dan

    como corresponda a cada figura:

      Sagittal plane

      Transverse plane

     

    Median plane

      Dorsal plane

      Cranial

       Ventral

      Caudal

      Proximal

     

    Lateral

      Medial

      Distal

      Dorsal

    Figura 1: Figura 2:

    Figura 3: Figura 4:

    Leé el texto 6 debajo y redactá en español, en forma clara y precisa:

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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    a. el tema general en una frase sustantiva, a manera de título:

    b. expresá con tus palabras qué explica el texto sobre el tema general, es decir, expresá la idea

    principal en un solo enunciado, en español, en forma clara y precisa

    Texto 6:

    HOW TO GIVE YOUR DOG MEDICATION Fuente: www.vetstreet.com 25 de agosto de 2011

    There will be times when you need to give your dog medication — and that can be a tricky task, especially if you’ve never

    done it before or if he is uncooperative. Here is expert advice on how to get the medicine down.

    To get your dog to take his medicine, you may have to employ a few sneaky tactics, whether the medicine comes in a pill, a

    capsule or is liquid. Luckily, there are a few simple things you can try to help you keep your pet still so you can give him the

    medication that will make him feel better. But first you must be clear on what the veterinarian recommends.

    1. Understanding the Medication Instructions: When your veterinarian prescribes a new medication, make sure you

    completely understand the instructions before you leave the office. She will likely explain the route of medication into the

    dog (by mouth, into the ears, or into the eyes, for example) how often the medication should be taken (once daily, every 12hours, etc.), duration of treatment (7 days, until gone), and other special considerations (give with food, follow with water).

     You should also ask how you can expect your pet to respond to the treatment—and how quickly he will be feeling better.

    Some medications don’t have very strict dosing instructions—for example, your veterinarian may simply say you should

    administer the drug as needed. Other times, you may be able to give a medication once a day even though the package

    says twice a day. But since dosing guidelines must be followed precisely, you should always ask your veterinarian before

    making adjustments. And don’t hesitate to speak up if the dosing instructions don’t work with your schedule—in some cases

    your veterinarian may be able to recommend another medication that can be given on a different timetable. For example, if

    your work schedule does not permit dosing every 8 hours, your veterinarian may be able to recommend a medication that

    can be given less frequently.

    To make sure you don’t forget any doses, consider making a medication schedule for your pet. Simply write the date and

    time that the medication needs to be administered, along with the last day of treatment. Even if your dog is feeling better,

    you should still give him the medication for the correct length of time. The reason: Complications can occur if antibiotics

    aren’t given for the full duration of recommended treatment, plus some medications—such as corticosteroids—will cause

    illness if they’re discontinued.

     You should also take care to follow all label directions exactly, since seemingly minor factors, like improper storage (for

    example, keeping a refrigerated medication at room temperature) can affect a medicine’s safety and effectiveness. And if

    your pet experiences any side effects after taking the medication, contact your veterinarian promptly before making anychanges to your dog’s dosing schedule or discontinuing the medication.

    2. Administering Pills: It can take some trial and error to get your dog to swallow a pill. When your veterinarian

    prescribes a medication, ask if it can be given with food, as some dogs take pills very readily if they’re hidden inside a treat

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    (such as liverwurst, a small piece of soft cheese, peanut butter, or cream cheese) or given with a small amount of canned

    food (simply crush pills or break and empty capsules and mix into the food.) The downsides to this method: Your dog must

    eat all of the food in one sitting (to ensure he receives the full dose), plus some coated pills and capsules have a bitter taste

    if the capsule or coating is removed, and if the medication makes the food taste bad, your dog may refuse to eat it. You will

    probably know after the first or second dosing if this method will work.

    It’s a bit more challenging if you must give your dog a pill directly by mouth. If your dog isn’t used to having your hands

    around his mouth, gradually introduce him to this by stroking his muzzle and chin for a few moments to calm him down. If

    you think your dog may try to bite you, do not attempt giving him medicine by mouth—ask your veterinarian about

    alternative medication options. But if you trust that your dog won’t attempt to harm you, try these tips to make it a bit

    easier (warning: this technique takes practice and may require more than one attempt to get your dog to swallow the pill):

      Stand/kneel beside your dog (on his right side if you are right-handed). Hold the pill between the thumb and index

    finger of your right hand if you are right

      handed. Switch it if you are left handed.

      Using your left hand, reach over the top of your dog’s nose and squeeze your thumb and middle finger between his

    upper and lower teeth. Your thumb

      should be on one side of your dog’s mouth and your middle finger on the other side. Try to stay behind the canine

    teeth (the long, pointy teeth near the

      front of the mouth). If you’re doing this properly, the sides of the upper lip will curl in as your fingers go in his

    mouth.

      Once your fingers are inside, gently tilt your dog’s head back to encourage him to open his mouth.

     

    Once the mouth is open, use your right index finger and thumb to place the pill near the base of the tongue. Then

    remove your hands quickly so your dog

     

    can swallow. 

    Rub your dog’s throat lightly and offer a small amount of water to encourage swallowing.

    3. Administering Liquid Medication: Some people prefer liquid medication because administering it doesn’t require

    placing your fingers inside your dog’s mouth. Here are tips for administering liquid medication:

      Draw the medication into the dropper or syringe and hold it in your right hand (if you’re right handed).

      Stand/kneel beside your dog (on his right side if you are right-handed). Place your left hand behind your dog’s

    head to stabilize it. You can gently stroke the back of the head to distract your dog.

      Using your right hand, insert the tip of the dropper or syringe into the side of your dog’s mouth. Try to stay close

    to the back of the mouth (near the molars) and away from the canine teeth (near the front of the mouth).

      Once the tip is in, empty the medication into the mouth and release your dog’s head. Rub your dog’s throat lightly

    to encourage swallowing.4. Troubleshooting Tips: If you’re unable to administer medications to your dog, consider these expert tips:

     Ask for help. If your dog won’t cooperate with receiving medication, ask someone to help you restrain your dog while you

    control the head and give the medication.

    Don’t risk injury. If you’re unable to administer medication or are worried your dog will hurt you, call your veterinarian

    and ask for advice. Seek out a different formulation. Some medications are available in several forms, including pills, liquid

    given by mouth with an eye dropper or syringe, chewable flavored treats, and transdermal gels (the gel is applied to your

    dog’s skin, where it’s absorbed into the bloodstream). So if you dog won’t swallow liquid medication or if the pill just isn’t

    working out, ask your veterinarian if there is another option.

    Consider calling in the pros. Some veterinarians can arrange daily outpatient appointments for a technician or assistant

    to administer your dog’s medication. If your schedule doesn’t permit this, some veterinarians may be able to board your dogso that medication can be given until the course of treatment has been completed.

    Hopefully giving your dog medication will go smoothly but if it doesn’t, or if you are concerned about dosage or anything at

    all, call your veterinarian.

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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    Texto 7:

    1. Scanning: Encerrá con frases verbales en los tiempos verbales que se indican en el cuadro.

    2. Completá el cuadro con las frases y expresálas en español teniendo en cuenta su sujeto. 

    Ej: has recently become popular: se ha hecho/vuelto popular/común

     present

     perfect:

    future

    simple:  

    simple

     past:  

     past

     perfect:  

    3. Scanning: Expresá en español las siguientes frases sustantivas extraídas del texto. Recordá: la palabra

    que te dice de qué habla la frase, es la última, es decir, la última palabra es la más importante, excepto en

    la 6., ¿te acordás por qué? 

    1. glove use (línea 2):

    2. food service establishments (línea 2):

    3.  oor handwashing practices (línea 3):

    4. disease outbreaks (línea 4):

    5. mandatory glove use (línea 5):

    6. National Advisory Committee for the

    Microbial Criteria for Foods (línea 6):

    7. healthcare literature (línea 9):

    8. disposable gloves (línea 14):

    9. ground beef (línea 16):

    10. four bacterial transfer rates (línea 20):

     

    4. Scanning: Completá los siguientes enunciados según la información proporcionada por el texto.

    1. La utilización de guantes para la manipulación de alimentos se debe a la creencia de que

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    2. Algunas pruebas han estudiado la efectividad del uso de guantes en la manipulación de alimentos y se ha llegado

    a la conclusión de que

    3. Los objetivos del estudio al cual este texto pertenece fueron

    5. Skimming: Respondé con una frase sustantiva o con una palabra, a manera de título: ¿De qué trata el

    texto 7?

    título para el texto 7:

    Texto 7:

    1

    5

    10

    15

    20

    Glove Barriers to Bacterial Cross-Examination Between Hands to Food (fragmento adaptado)

    Glove use has recently become popular in foodservice establishments because of the intuitive assumption that

    a physical barrier will prevent the food handler from contaminating food. Food handling and poor handwashing

     practices have traditionally been the source of foodborne disease outbreaks. However, some have argued that

    mandatory glove use can cause overall hygiene to decline and that gloves are not commonly properly used. In

    September 1999, the Food and Drug Administration asked the National Advisory Committee for the Microbial

    Criteria for Foods to examine this issue. The committee determined that there were insufficient data on gloves to

    mandate their use in the model food code.

    The majority of the glove effectiveness originates from the healthcare literature. These studies have limited

    foodservice application because they evaluate surgical gloves that typically are of a better quality than foodservice

    gloves.

    Some studies have examined gloves in a foodservice setting, focusing primarily on attachment characteristics

    and contamination on the outer part of the glove. In a study by Bardell, droplets of saliva containing herpes

    simplex virus were placed on the outside of latex disposable gloves and touched to lettuce or ham at 0, 30, and

    60 min. The virus was isolated from the food in all five trials for each group. Fendler et al. asked volunteers to

    handle ground beef containing Escherichia coli and showed that the outside of the glove was highly contaminated

    at the end of a 3-h period regardless of whether the handlers had changed gloves or washed their hands. Other

    studies also provide data on the transfer of bacteria and viruses from hand to kitchen surfaces, hands to food,

    and the survival of organisms on these surfaces.

    The primary objective of this study was to determine four bacterial transfer rates: chicken to bare hands,chicken to hands through gloves, bare hands to lettuce, and hands to lettuce through gloves. A secondary

    objective was to fit the transfer data to statistical distributions so they could be incorporated in a quantitative risk

    assessment.

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    Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

    Texto 8:

    1. Completá en siguiente cuadro:

    a. Escribí en español, en una frase sustantiva o palabra, a manera de título, el Tema General.

    b. Ampliá la información que expresaste en la consigna 1.a. en español, en forma clara y precisa

    2. Scanning: Buscá en el texto ejemplos de frases verbales en tiempos simple past   y  present   perfect  ,

    transcribílas junto a su sujeto o actor del enunciado, y expresálas en español.

    simple past

     present

     perfect

    3. Scanning: Releé, dentro del tema los verbos TO BE  y TO HAVE  , los usos de BE con THERE. Buscá en el

    texto un ejemplo de esta combinación, transcribíla y expresála en español.

    combinación BE conTHERE :

    en español:

    Texto 8:

    1

    5

    10

    15

    Management of an enterprise in agriculture, horticulture and forestry has to take into account a wide range of

    issues: the management of soils, crops and animals, the selection and use of machinery and implements,

    marketing arrangements, man management, and local and world commodity prices. Except for subsistence

    farming, where security of food supplies is all important, the purpose is to make the enterprise profitable.

    The objective of soil management is to create suitable conditions for the crops that are to be grown. Soil is

    required to provide anchorage and the physical and chemical conditions required by the plant. What the farmer

    does to help meet these requirements depends on what crops he grows, the required yield, the inputs that are

    available to him, and the soil and climatic conditions.

    Management of the soil started with the first farmers. Cultivations, rotations and irrigation are ancient

     practices. In the past 200 years there have been several innovations: farm machinery has become more powerful,

    crop varieties have been bred that give higher yields, and fertilizers and chemicals for the control of pests have

    been introduced.

    Soil is the growers´ main resource and it is in their interests to maintain it in as fertile a condition as possible.

    In this they are usually successful, but there has been, and still are, examples of bad management. Erosion has

    been caused by cutting down trees, salts have accumulated in soils under irrigation, and unsuitable soils have been

    brought into cultivation.

    Fuente: WILD, A. Soils and the Environment, Cambridge University Press, 1995, págs 137 y 138.

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